The Solovki Encyclopedia (English)
The Solovki Archipelago (Solovki)
The Solovetsky Monastery. The Solovki Camp (GULAG)
The Solovki Site Content• Introduction
• Solovki Chronicle
Part I. General Information.• Encyclopedic Info "Solovki Archipelago"
• Physical-geographical Review
Part II. Solovki History• Solovki Ancient History
• Solovki and People
• Stone Labyrinths and others...
• The times of Northern Labyrinths
• Labyrinths are Labyrinths
• The Solovetsky Monastery Foundation
• Monastery after Founding Fathers
• Saint Phillip (Kolychev)
• From Metropolitan Phillip to Eleazar
• Eleazar to Anzerskiy
• Solovetsky siege - religious and military confrontation
• Tsar Peter I and Solovki
• Solovki in the XVIII-XIX centuries
• Russian-English War and Solovki
• The XX century. Prison
• Solovetsky Camp and GULAG
• The Northern Navy Training Group
Part III. Our days.• Monastery Today
• Solovki Bibliography
Solovki Brief ChronicleV-III millennium B.C. The tribes of primitive fishermen and hunters began to inhabit the archipelago.
III-I millennium B.C. The tribes of the southern and western coasts of the White Sea constructed sanctuaries and seasonal settlements on Solovki islands. This was the time of the domination of the culture of the northern labyrinths.
The second half of I millennium B.C. The first habitable site of primitive man appears on the Bolshoi Zayatski island. This time was the time of the decline of the culture of the labyrinths.
I-XIV centuries Tribes of the White Sea use archipelago as fishing and hunting areas.
X-XI centuries The beginning of sea campaigns held by the Scandinavians to the White Sea. Also the beginning of the exploration of the White Sea coasts by Russian colonists.
The first half of XV century Solovki becomes the main location for sea trade, belonging to Karelian woman Khovra Toyvutova.
1427 Savvatii goes to Valaam where he spent two years. After that he secretly left the monastery and went to the White Sea coast where he met monk Herman.
The second quarter of XV century The first occurrence of a monastic settlement on Solovki. The monastery, The life of the Fathers, dates the arrival of Savvatii and Herman to the Big Solovetsky Island 1429. The year 1436, is considered to be the founding date of the Solovki monastery. This is the time when Zosima came to Solovki.
September, 27, 1435 Death of Savvatii; Solovki thaumaturgy.
The 60s of XV century Granted letter from the Great Novgorod allows the monastery to own the Solovki Islands. Wooden churches such as, Transfiguration, St. Nicholas, and Assumption, are constructed with dinning chambers.
1478, April, 17 Death of Zosima; Solovki thaumaturgy.
1478 The German bell molding - one of the most ancient naval trophies of Russia – is granted to a monastery after a successful military campaign.
1479 Death of Herman; Solovki thaumaturgy. Granted letter from Ivan III to Solovki monastery confirming the Novgorod letter.
The end of XV - the beginning of XVI century The beginning of prior ship and traveling of Dosifei an outstanding Solovki bookman. He composed the first variant of biography of St. Zosima and St. Savvatii.
1514 The first inventory of Solovki monastery created; one of the earliest documents of a similar sort. The beginning of special reverence of a monastery among monasteries of Moscow, Russia.
1520. Death of the first Solovki prisoner, heresiarch Sylvan.
30-50s of XVI century Several granted letters are given to the monastery from Ivan the Terrible about various privileges and donations.
1547 Canonization of Zosima and Savvatii by Russian Orthodox church.
1548 The beginning of the prior ship of Abbot Phillip (Kolichev).
The middle of XVI century Stone construction in the monastery begins under the direction of Abbot Phillip.
1554 The referral of Abbot Artemii to Solovki. Artemii was a abbot of Trinity – Sergei's monastery.
1556 The first successful escape from Solovki prison of Abbot Artemii, the former abbot of the Trinity – Sergei's monastery.
50-60s of XVI century A time of intensive development of the monastery's economy on the islands and on the continent. Construction of roads, canales, harbors and numerous economic institutions on the islands.
1557, August, 15 The stone church, Assumption of the Divine Mother, is consecrated.
1566 Marks the end of construction in the cathedral, Transfiguration. Abbot Phillip is nominated metropolitan of Moscow and all of Russia. The arrival of the English expedition to Solovki starts now.
1568 Metropolitan Phillip steps down from being metropolitan and is then sent to Tver' monastery.
1569, December, 23 Phillip's death.
1571 Swedish military ships appear on the White sea.
1578 Michael Ozerov is sent to Solovki.
1579 Construction of a wooden fortress on Solovki. Michael Ozerov is killed in a skirmish with the Swedes.
1582 The beginning of the construction of the stone monastery fortress.
1591 The transferring of the relics of St. Phillip from Tver monastery to Solovki.
1614 / 1615 The beginning of life of the hermit of Eliazar Anzerskii.
1620 The foundation of Saint Trinity minor-monastery on the Anzer Island.
1626 / 1627, September, 13 Death of Avraamii Palitsin. Avraamii was a Solovki monk, well-known writer in the beginning of the seventeenth century. Also a former habitant of the Trinity-Sergei's monastery and a former prisoner of the Solovki monastery.
1633 The letter of Tsar Michael Feodorovich establishes the independence of Trinity minor-monastery on Anzer Island from the Solovki monastery.
1635 Extraordinary rising of the sea level. The ground floors of the monastery buildings are flooded and water reaches a porch of the Transfiguration cathedral.
1630-s The tonsuring of the future patriarch Nikon a friar in Trinity minor-monastery.
1651 Solovki Abbot Ilya becomes an archimandrite. Since this time all Solovki abbots have the dignity of archimandrite.
1656, January, 13 The death of St. Eliazar Anzerskii.
1658 Solovki monks refuse to accept checked prayer books issued within the framework of reform of patriarch Nikon and sent from Moscow to Solovki.
1667 Opponents of Nikon's reforms refuse to accept the new abbot of the monastery, archimandrite Joseph, appointed by decree of sovereign Alexey Mihajlovich.
1668 Attorney Ignatii Volokhov is sent to Solovki with the group of bowmen.
1669 Supporters for peace for orthodox religion are exiled from the monastery.
1672 Cossacks from Stepan Razin's, begin to arrive at Solovki in broken groups.
1673 The beginning of the blockade of Solovki monastery; discord amongst bowmen.
1674 Ivan Meshcherinov is sent to Solovki, and disagrees with certain new procedures at the monastery. Solovki hermits have stopped to pray for the sovereign.
1675 An unsuccessful storm of the monastery by the bowmen.
1676, January, 22 Capture of the monastery with the help of treachery and severe execution of rebels.
1694 The first visit to Solovki of Sovereign Peter the Great who has rendered great favor to the monastery.
1701 Disgraced Ioann, the former confessor of the imperial family, is exiled to Solovki. He is given the name Iov (ascetic name Jesus). Iov founded the minor-monastery of The Crucifixion on the Golgotha mountain (the Anzer Island).
1702 The second visit to Solovki of Peter the Great. The beginning of the military operation, "Sovereign's road".
1720 The death of Iov (Jesus), the founder of the minor-monastery of The Crucifixion.
60-s of XVIII century Imperial decrees about secularization of monastery property.
1777-1793 The edition of the "Solovki Annals", the first printed work on the history of the Solovki monastery.
1814 Disarmament on Solovki. The Solovki fortress is removed from the list of Russian military fortresses.
1819-1825 Archimandrite Makarii, becomes the abbot and the founder of Makarii's hermitage of the Solovki Botanical garden.
1826-1836 Archimandrite Dosifei Nemchinov becomes an abbot. The edition of fundamental geographical, historical, and statistical description of Solovki monastery.
1844 Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich, outstanding naval figure (epoch of reforms of Alexander II), comes to Solovki.
1854 English ships «Brisk» and «Miranda» come to Solovki. Bombardment of the monastery.
1855, June English ships appear again near the monastery. Ineffectual negotiations with Archimandrite Alexander occur about updating the stores of Englishmen.
1858 Emperor Alexander II comes to Solovki.
1873 The first edition of Solovki's Life of the Fathers is written.
1886 Abolition of military command in Solovki monastery.
1895-1917 Construction of a connecting navigable system of canals on the Big Solovki Island.
1899 The edition of «History of Solovki monastery» - the most full work on a history of a monastery.
1913 Great princess Elizaveta Fedorovna, the founding princess of Marfo-Mariinski monastery comes to Solovki.
1917 Overthrow of Archimandrite Ioannikii. The first democratic elections in Russia. Monk Veniamin becomes an archimandrite.
1917-1920 Archimandrite Veniamin Kononov becomes abbot. April, 17, 1928 Archimandrite Veniamin is burnt alive in deserted woods near Arkhangelsk.
1918 A Red Army detachment comes to Solovki. Part of monastery inventory is confiscated.
1918-1919 A sizable division of interventionists is accommodated on Solovki.
1920 A commission with Michael Kedrov arrives to Solovki. Actual liquidation of Solovki monastery and the retirement of its management. Organization of a state farm on Solovki and the camp of forced hard labor.
1923 Organizing of the "Solovki Camps of Special Destination". (SLON). The first execution on Solovki.
1936 Reorganization of camps into prisons. (STON).
1939 Liquidation of prisons on Solovki. The archipelago is transferred to the Northern Fleet. The organization of Training Unit of Northern Navy on the Islands.
1942-1945 Creation of the school for ship-boys in the structure of the Training Unit of the Northern Navy.
1944 Organizing of the Island Council on Solovki (since 1971 known as the Rural Council).
1967 Organizing of the department of "Arkhangelsk Regional Museum" of local lore (since 1974 known as Solovki State historical, architectural and natural museum-reserve).
1987 Organizing of Regional Council on Solovki. The settlement is now known by the official name «Solovetskii».
1990 Renewing of Solovki Transfiguration Mens monastery.
1992 Moscow and All Russia Patriarch Alex II visits Solovki monastery. Returning of sacred relics of Saints Savvatii, Zosima and Herman – the founders of Solovki monastery.
1994 Solovki historical and cultural complex is included in the "The list of the world heritage" of UNESCO.
2000 Establishing of a new orthodox holiday – the Cathedral of Solovki New Martyrs and Confessors (August, 23).
2001 President of Russian Federation Vladimir Putin comes to Solovki in the company of Moscow Patriarch Alex II. Swedish King Carl XVI Gustav and Queen Silvia come to Solovki.
Prince Charles visits Solovki.